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restoration

GSA abstract: Soils and Geomorphology of Five Reclaimed Surface Mine Sites in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

Later this month, Caytie, Garrett, and I will be representing the Watershed Hydrology Lab at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington. Caytie will be presenting the following poster on Tuesday, October 24th in spot 257-4 in the Washington State Convention Center.

Soils and Geomorphology of Five Reclaimed Surface Mine Sites in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

Ruhm, C., Jefferson, A., Blackwood, C., Minerovic, A., and Davis, C.

Abandoned mine lands are common to human-altered landscapes. Despite the improvement of remediation techniques, the geomorphic and ecological function of historical abandoned mines persist as a concern to many regions. Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP) is home to ~50 abandoned gravel, sand, and topsoil mines. After mining ceased, these sites were backfilled, compacted, and seeded. Following reclamation, rills and gullies appeared on some steep slopes within the sites. Additionally, reforestation efforts at these sites have not been successful. The causes of these failures are not well understood. Previous studies of coal mines have pointed toward altered chemical properties as a cause of reforestation failure. However, since the CVNP sites lack coal and associated tailings, further research is required to understand how the mining and reclamation affect erosion control and reforestation efforts.
Our research is investigating the geomorphology and soil quality of five of the abandoned mine sites within CVNP relative to four reference sites with similar slope and aspect, but mature forest. We aim to (1) determine the quality of the soils within the sites in comparison to the reference locations, (2) determine if the sites are currently undergoing erosion in exceedance of the reference locations, and (3) inform future reclamation projects to assist in the creation of successful practices.

We have collected ~250 soil samples from the five sites and four reference locations to analyze for grain size distribution, soil pH, concentrations of extractable Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, and P, and total C and N. Preliminary results indicate a marked difference in soil pH between the mined (pH 7-8) and forested reference (pH 3.6-6) sites. Measurements of infiltration capacity and bulk density are underway. Preliminary results of bulk density indicate that the density is very high (>2000 kg/m3) in the mined sites, which may be impeding plant growth and promoting overland water flow. Pressure transducers in three gullies on the mined sites indicate water flow during and following intense rainfall, and silt fences are allowing us to quantify sediment flux. Mapping of gully long profiles and cross-sections will enable us to calculate the volume of sediment removed by the gullies since reclamation occurred.

Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 49, No. 6
doi: 10.1130/abs/2017AM-303598

Grassy hill with trees in the background. Cloudy sky.

One of the sites that Caytie is studying, as it appeared in October 2016. The several acre site was host to invasive Phragmites reeds and a failed tree planting.

The 2016 Kent State Water and Land Symposium

A major focus for the Watershed Hydrology lab this fall has been preparing for the Kent State University Water and Land Symposium. Anne Jefferson was the symposium co-chair (with lots of help from Biology’s Chris Blackwood), and all of the lab members were involved in some way. Pedro, Laura, Hayley, and Cody presented posters. Caytie and Garrett helped with set up and were on tweeting duty. The symposium had about 400 attendees from universities, agencies, cities, non-profits, and the general public from throughout northeast Ohio. If you missed the event live or on twitter, here’s how it went down.

 

This year’s symposium occurred on October 5-6, 2016, and featured the theme of “Sustainability and Resilience on the Land-Water Continuum.”

Abstract: Evaluating restoration effects on transient storage and hyporheic exchange in urban and forested streams

A third abstract from our group for the 2012 Geological Society of America meeting:

EVALUATING RESTORATION EFFECTS ON TRANSIENT STORAGE AND HYPORHEIC EXCHANGE IN URBAN AND FORESTED STREAMS

OSYPIAN, Mackenzie L., Civil Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28262, mosypian@uncc.edu, JEFFERSON, Anne J., Department of Geology, Kent State University, 221 McGilvrey Hall, Kent, OH 44240, and CLINTON, Sandra, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223

Millions of dollars are spent each year on restoration projects designed to improve stream habitat, but few studies have investigated effects of restoration on hyporheic exchange and transient storage. Stream water-groundwater interactions and transient storage in four second-order streams (urban/forest; restored/urestored) were studied by measuring geomorphology, streambed vertical head gradients and water fluxes, and by using conservative, impulse-loaded tracer studies along with the OTIS model. The magnitude of upwelling and down welling was observed to be greatest in the restored urban stream, which contains large step structures, while the smallest gradients were observed in the unrestored urban stream, which is incised to bedrock. OTIS results show that the 120 m unrestored urban reach with a debris dam has an average transient storage of 1.8×10^-2 m2/m and an ? of 9.5×10^-4 s^-1 while a 55m restored forested reach with log sills has an average transient storage of 8.3×10^-2 m2/m and an ? of 1.5×10^-4 s^-1. Based on these results, we conclude that restoration changes transient storage metrics, and ongoing work aims to understand how these changes affect ecosystem health.

Spring Break: tracer injection in Beaver Dam Creek

Spring Break: tracer injection in Beaver Dam Creek

Spring Break: tracer injection in Beaver Dam Creek

Some of our students are in the field this week, injecting Cl- and Br- into a restored reach and an unrestored reach in tributaries of Beaver Dam Creek. Our goal is to understand the role of wood jams versus restoration structures in promoting stream-hyporheic exchange.

In the photo are Alea, Xueying, and Mackenzie. Photo by Brittany. They’ve got it so capably handled they didn’t even need Sandra or I out there with them today, but I’m going tomorrow for an excuse to be in the field as much as anything.

Spring Break: tracer injection in Beaver Dam Creek

Some of our students are in the field this week, injecting Cl- and Br- into a restored reach and an unrestored reach in tributaries of Beaver Dam Creek. Our goal is to understand the role of wood jams versus restoration structures in promoting stream-hyporheic exchange.

In the photo are Alea, Xueying, and Mackenzie. Photo by Brittany. They’ve got it so capably handled they didn’t even need Sandra or I out there with them today, but I’m going tomorrow for an excuse to be in the field as much as anything.

Spring Break: tracer injection in Beaver Dam Creek

Some of our students are in the field this week, injecting Cl- and Br- into a restored reach and an unrestored reach in tributaries of Beaver Dam Creek. Our goal is to understand the role of wood jams versus restoration structures in promoting stream-hyporheic exchange.

In the photo are Alea, Xueying, and Mackenzie. Photo by Brittany. They’ve got it so capably handled they didn’t even need Sandra or I out there with them today, but I’m going tomorrow for an excuse to be in the field as much as anything.

Urban streams with green walls

ResearchBlogging.orgWill Dalen Rice and a friendNote: This post is a collaborative effort by Anne and guest blogger Will Dalen Rice, a graduate student in the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences at UNC Charlotte. He had the misfortune of taking a couple of courses from Anne this semester and has become a certified stream junkie, going out on rainy nights to see how high Charlotte’s urban streams are running.

Most cities were started around the idea of available surface water resources. Development and misuse of our streams (ex: “dilution is the solution to pollution”) has resulted in the modern urban stream. These streams are straight and good at carrying storm water, full of sediment and pollutants, and they lack good habitat for plants and animals. Now that we are beginning to notice how degraded and trashed these city waterways are though, scientists and engineers are beginning to attempt to address the form and function of these waterways to hopefully return them to a more “natural” (or at least aesthetically pleasing) state. While there are many stream restoration techniques, they often involve mechanical manipulation of the stream channel and banks and the planting of riparian plants along the stream corridor. As the streamside ecosystem redevelops, the idea is that health of the stream will also improve (leave it to nature to clean up our messes, given the chance).

For large urban streams, the standard practices in stream and habitat restoration are sometimes not possible, often because decades of infrastructure development have pinned the stream into a narrow corridor. So other approaches need to be considered, and Robert Francis and Simon Hoggart of King’s College London discuss ways that existing artificial structures can be put to work to mitigate some of the ecological impacts of urbanization. In the specific case of the River Thames in England, habitat development has been observed on man-made structures, and furthermore, certain types of man-made structures grow life better than others. Francis and Hoggart show that indeed plants (and therefore animals) can develop in a riparian zone better when brick and wood and rougher materials are used over concrete and steel. If concrete and steel already exist, adding brick and wood can further trap sediment for habitat growth (like gluing a cup of dirt to a steel wall). They suggest that this should become standard practice when thinking of restoration efforts in large, urban waterways.

The NOAA’s Northwest Fisheries Science Center says Thornton Creek in downtown Seattle exemplifies “the challenges facing rehabilitating urban streams.” But a look at the NOAA picture below shows that this stream is also emblematic of a riparian ecosystem that has developed within the constraints of the existing structures and maybe even a spontaneous model for the sort of restoration that Francis and Hoggart envision.

Seattle urban stream from NOAA website

Francis, R., & Hoggart, S. (2008). Waste Not, Want Not: The Need to Utilize Existing Artificial Structures for Habitat Improvement Along Urban Rivers Restoration Ecology, 16 (3), 373-381 DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00434.x

Research assistantship available on stream restoration, nitrogen dynamics, urban streams

An opportunity to do graduate work at UNC Charlotte with excellent and enthusiastic aquatic biogeochemist Sara McMillan:

We are seeking qualified applicants for a graduate assistantship at the MS or Ph.D. level, starting in the summer or fall of 2010 (summer preferred) in Dr. Sara McMillan’s laboratory at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Our work broadly addresses the interactions between ecology and biogeochemistry in aquatic ecosystems. This position is funded through a collaborative project with Dr. McMillan and Dr. Greg Jennings at North Carolina State University investigating the impacts of stream restoration on nitrogen dynamics in urban streams. Field and laboratory experiments will focus on reach-scale nutrient retention, microbial biogeochemistry (i.e. denitrification and nitrification) and microbial diversity. Opportunities exist to develop research aims that align with the project for the individual research. Preferred qualifications include a strong background in biology and hydrology, experience with field and laboratory research, and good teamwork and communication skills. The position is funded for 1 year at $18,000 with possibilities for future funding.

If interested contact: Dr. Sara McMillan (smcmillan@uncc.edu) for more information.