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graduate students

Congratulations Garrett and Caytie!

Congratulations to the Watershed Hydrology Lab’s two first year MS students for each achieving two big accomplishments. They have both successfully defended their MS thesis proposals, putting them in a great position to be productive on their research this summer.  Also, both Caytie and Garrett were awarded Geological Society of America student research grants to help support their research.

Caytie's work focuses on the soils and geomorphology of abandoned surface mines in Cuyahoga Valley National Park.

Caytie’s work focuses on the soils and geomorphology of abandoned surface mines in Cuyahoga Valley National Park.

Garrett's work focuses on the abundance and mobility of wood in urban streams. 

Garrett’s work focuses on the abundance and mobility of wood in urban streams.


Eric Traub Thesis Defense!

You are invited to attend Eric Traub’s  public MS thesis defense in Geology.

“The Effects of Biogeochemical Sinks on the Mobility of Contaminants in an Area Affected By Acid Mine Drainage, Huff Run, Ohio.”

(Co-Advisors: David Singer and Anne Jefferson)

Monday, Feb. 22, 12:30 pm in McGilvrey Hall, room 339, Kent State University

Development of hyporheic exchange and nutrient uptake following stream restoration

Next week, the Watershed Hydrology Lab will be well represented at the CUAHSI 2014 Biennial Colloquium. We’ll be presenting four posters, so here come the abstracts…

Development of hyporheic exchange and nutrient uptake following stream restoration

Stuart Baker and Anne Jefferson

Stream restoration is a multi-million dollar industry in Ohio, with major goals of improving water quality and degraded habitat. Yet restoration often falls short of significant improvements in water quality and biodiversity. It is thus important to improve the theory and practice of stream restoration in order to achieve greater benefits per dollar spent, yet there are limited data and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical responses to restoration that constrain the potential for water quality and ecological improvements. Hyporheic exchange, the flow of water into and out of the streambed, is an important stream process that serves critical roles in naturally functioning streams, allowing for stream water to participate with the substrate in various processes. Hyporheic flowpaths can be altered by the transport of fine sediment through the stream bed and are thus susceptible to changes in sediment regime and hydraulics, as well as the changes wrought by construction of a restoration project. The goal of this research is to determine the effectiveness of restoration in enhancing hyporheic flow and associated biogeochemical processes to improve water quality. Preliminary results from Kelsey Creek, OH, a second-order stream restored in August 2013, show a decrease in average hydraulic conductivity but an increase in heterogeneity from pre-restoration (geometric mean 8.47×10-5 m/s, range 1.18×10-6-1.19×10-3) to post-restoration (geometric mean 4.41×10-5 m/s, range 2.67×10-5-3.05×10-4) in piezometer nests through large constructed riffle structures. These piezometers also indicate dominance of downwelling throughout riffle structures with only isolated locations of upwelling. Transient storage and hyporheic exchange will be measured with resazurin injections for comparison between pre-restoration and post-restoration, and nutrient injections of NH4Cl at time points following the restoration will compare the nitrogen uptake rates of the restored reach to an unrestored reach downstream. Additional sites are planned for study to include restoration projects of different ages to examine the development of hyporheic exchange and biogeochemistry after completion of restoration projects.

Assessing impacts of green infrastructure at the watershed scale for suburban streets in Parma, Ohio

Next week, the Watershed Hydrology Lab will be well represented at the CUAHSI 2014 Biennial Colloquium. We’ll be presenting four posters, so here come the abstracts…

Assessing impacts of green infrastructure at the watershed scale for suburban streets in Parma, Ohio

Kimberly Jarden, Anne Jefferson, Jennifer Grieser, and Derek Schaefer

High levels of impervious surfaces in urban environments can lead to greater levels of runoff from storm events and overwhelm storm sewer systems. Disconnecting impervious surfaces from storm water systems and redirecting the flow to decentralized green infrastructure treatments can help lessen the detrimental effects on watersheds. The West Creek Watershed is a 36 km2 subwatershed of the Cuyahoga River that contains ~35% impervious surface. We seek to evaluate the hydrologic impacts and pollution reduction of street scale investments using green infrastructure best management practices (BMPs), such as rain gardens, bioretention, and rain barrels. Before-after-control-impact design will pair two streets with 0.001-0.002 ha. lots and two streets with 0.005-0.0075 ha. lots. Flow meters have been installed to measure total discharge, velocity, and stage pre– and post-construction. Runoff data has been preliminarily analyzed to determine if peak discharge for large (> 10 mm) and small (<10 mm) storm events has been reduced after installation of BMPs on the street with 0.001-0.002 ha. lots. Initial results show that the peak flows have not been reduced for most storm events on the street with the green infrastructure. However, several larger events show that peak flows have been reduced on the treatment street and need to be further investigated to ensure no outside hydrological impacts are having an effect on the flow. Initial analysis of total flow volume for each event, pre- and post-construction, show that total volume has increased on the street with green infrastructure treatments. Possible explanation for the increase on flow volume could be attributed to under drains from bioretention creating a more connected flow path to the storm drain or an upstream leak in the control street storm drain. Each scenario will be investigated further to confirm results. Further research will include analysis of the total effect of street-scale BMPs on storm hydrograph characteristics including, hydrograph regression behavior and lag time. Analysis on the accumulation of metals in the bioswales and the reduction of metals in street runoff will also be conducted to determine if the BMP treatments are capturing pollutants associated with storm water. After studying the effect of each individual treatment, we will define the level of disconnected impervious surfaces needed in order to achieve a natural hydrologic regime in this watershed.

After the dam comes out: groundwater-stream interactions and water quality impacts of former reservoir sites

Next week, the Watershed Hydrology Lab will be well represented at the CUAHSI 2014 Biennial Colloquium. We’ll be presenting four posters, so here come the abstracts…

After the dam comes out: groundwater-stream interactions and water quality impacts of former reservoir sites

Krista Brown and Anne Jefferson

Over that past decade, dam removals have become increasingly popular, as many dams near the end of their life expectancy. With an increasing number of anticipated dam removals coming in the near future this study aims to develop an understanding of groundwater-stream interactions and water quality in former reservoir sites after dam removals have occurred. Low head dams (~2 m) were removed in 2009 from Plum Creek in Kent, Portage County, Ohio and on Kelsey Creek in Cuyahoga Falls, Summit County, Ohio. Kelsey Creek reservoir has been unaltered since the dam removal and consists of a stream channel flowing through riparian- wetland environments, while Plum Creek reservoir underwent channel restoration in 2011. At Kelsey Creek, 20 piezometers and 3 wells were installed in the stream and riparian areas. Pressure transducers were also deployed in each well and stream from November 20, 2013 to January 5, 2014. Hydraulic conductivity was calculated using the Hvorslev method. Since October 2013, hydraulic heads have been recorded semi-weekly and water samples have been taken in the wells and stream. Water quality is being evaluated with field-measured pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen, and ion chromatography of chloride, bromide, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate concentrations. Plum Creek is being used to understand the water quality effects of channel restoration at former reservoir sites.
At Kelsey Creek, hydraulic conductivity ranges five magnitudes, from 10?2 to 10?6 m/s, but wells near the channel, in an off-channel wetland, and on an adjacent hillslope respond similarly during high flow events. However, the well closest to the stream shows substantial variability in specific conductance, indicating bidirectional groundwater-stream exchange. Despite the wetlands and presumed greater groundwater-stream exchange in the unrestored Kelsey Creek, stream water quality is similar to the restored Plum Creek site. This suggests that the water quality measures considered here should not determine whether to restore channels within former reservoir sites. Findings from this research may be applicable when considering options for future dam removal sites.

Congratulations to Darren and Aly!

DarrenCongratulations to Darren Reilly who did a wonderful job defending his MS thesis on Tuesday. Darren’s thesis focused on the identification of groundwater pollution and its sources in rural northeastern Pennsylvania residential water wells. Darren will be preparing his thesis for publication in a journal and is looking for a job in the energy or environmental sectors. Check him out on LinkedIn.

Congratulations also to Alison Reynolds who won first place in the Kent State Undergraduate Research Symposium, Geology/Geography category for her poster on “Sensitivity of precipitation isotope meteoric water lines and seasonal signals to sampling frequency and location.” Aly is a junior this year, and will be continuing to be a valuable member of our research group this summer and next year before heading somewhere fabulous for graduate school.

Congrats Darren and Aly. It is a pleasure to work with such passionate and dedicated students.

Brock Freyer defends his MS on the Mighty Mississippi

Two people, standing behind a boat, with river and bluffs in the background.

Brock and Anne at the end of field work on the Mississippi River, July 2008.

Today, Brock Freyer will be defending the results of his M.S. research. The title of his research project is: Fluvial Response to River Management and Sediment Supply: Pool 6 of the Upper Mississippi River System, Southeastern Minnesota.

Brock’s committee is composed of Anne Jefferson (advisor), John Diemer and Ross Meentemeyer.

The defense is on Tuesday April 23, 2013, at 1:30 pm in McEniry 307 of UNC Charlotte. As Brock is currently located in Alaska, this will be a Skype defense. All are welcome to attend.


In this age of environmental restorations and rehabilitations, the scale and extent of projects have been getting larger and more expensive. In the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) has begun the task of restoring the negative effects that over a century of river management has incurred. Due to the scale and cost of such projects, it is essential to understand the natural and human processes that have affected the river system. In the UMRS, erosion and land loss are considered the dominant geomorphological trend, but Pool 6 of the UMRS is an exception to this norm. In Pool 6, deposition and land growth in recent decades have allowed the river morphology to begin reverting to its condition prior to intense river management. Through the application of varied chronological data sets within ArcGIS, spatial variations were measured to better understand where and why changes have occurred. A nested study area approach was applied to Pool 6 by dividing it into three scales: a general Pool wide observation; a smaller more in-depth observation on an area of island emergence and growth in the lower pool; and a subset of that section describing subaqueous conditions utilizing bathymetric data. The results from this study have indicated that site-specific geographic and hydrologic conditions have contributed to island emergence and growth in Pool 6. In Pool 6 land has been emerging at an average rate of 0.08km2/year since 1975.  Within lower Pool 6, land has been emerging on an average rate of 18m2/year since 1940. The bathymetric subset has shown that sediments on average have gained 2.41m in vertical elevation, which translates into just under 828,000 m3 of sediments being deposited in 113 years.  By identifying and describing these conditions river managers will be able to apply such knowledge to locate or reproduce similar characteristics within degraded sections of the UMRS. If the observations hold true in other locations, restoration efforts will be cheaper, more self-sustaining, promote natural fluvial dynamics, and ultimately be much more successful.

We are currently preparing a manuscript for publication.

Mackenzie Osypian defends her thesis on stream restoration and transient storage

Woman in stream with PVC pipes (piezometers)

Mackenzie tending to piezometers in one of her streams.

Mackenzie Osypian is defending her MS research in Civil Engineering at UNC Charlotte, April 22nd at 4:00 pm in McEniry Hall 441 on the UNC Charlotte campus. Mackenzie is advised by Anne Jefferson and Sandra Clinton. John Daniels and Jim Bowen are on her committee.

Mackenzie’s research is titled: “Evaluating restoration effects on transient storage and hyporheic exchange in urban and forested streams.”  Her abstract is below:

Millions of dollars are spent each year on restoration projects designed to improve stream habitat, but few studies have investigated effects of restoration on groundwater- surface water interactions. Hyporheic exchange and transient storage in four second-order streams (urban/forest; restored/unrestored) were studied by measuring geomorphology, streambed vertical head gradients and water fluxes, and by using conservative, impulse-loaded tracer studies along with the OTIS model. Total storage exchange and percent hyporheic exchange were found by utilizing the OTIS P parameters and the sum of downwelling fluxes calculated in SURFER. The upwelling and downwelling varied between -1.783 m/m to 3.760 m/m in the restored urban stream, which contains large step structures, while the unrestored urban stream had no measured upwelling or downwelling (0 m/m) along the reach, which is incised to bedrock.  The forested restored stream had a smaller range of hydraulic gradients (-0.012 m/m to 1.99 m/m) compared to the forested unrestored stream, which ranged from -0.725 m/m to 0.610 m/m. The forested unrestored reach had the highest percent of hyporheic exchange, reaching 22% during the winter season. The urban restored has the smallest percent of hyporheic exchange of 0% across all seasons due to the exposure of bedrock in the streambed. The restored reaches were found to have between 0% and 6% of total transient storage exchange occurring in the hyporheic zones, with some seasonal variability.

The results indicate that restoration increases the hyporheic storage when the stream has incised to bedrock, but that large in-channel storage is also created. When the stream has an alluvial bed (as in the forested streams), the percent of hyporheic flow compared to total storage is reduced. The forested unrestored stream had the largest average hydraulic conductivity of 0.006 cm/s compared to the forested restored, 0.001 cm/s, and the urban restored, 0.001 cm/s.  The restored forested site had a maximum area to storage area ratio of 247 m2/m2 in the spring, which was higher than the forested unrestored site. That site had a maximum of 16.4 m2/m2, which occurred during the fall season.

We are currently preparing her thesis for publication.

Abstract: Using Watershed Modeling to Optimize Management of Urban Stormwater to Control Stream Nitrogen

Ph.D. student Colin Bell will be presenting the following poster at the American Ecological Engineering Society meeting this week in Syracuse, New York.

Using Watershed Modeling to Optimize Management of Urban Stormwater to Control Stream Nitrogen

Colin Bell
Dr. Sara McMillan
Dr. Christina Tague
Dr. Anne Jefferson
Dr. Sandra Clinton

Urban infrastructure expansion causes the alteration of hydrologic and nutrient regimes, elevating nitrogen (N) concentrations in the streams that receive stormwater runoff. The inclusion of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in urban watersheds has been found to help ameliorate these problems by retaining water and reducing N concentrations through denitrification and uptake. The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) is currently being used to test the impact of different BMP implementation strategies and fertilizer application regimes to simulate their effects on instream N in an urbanizing, residential watershed in Charlotte, NC. RHESSys is a distributed, process-based model that simulates natural and anthropogenic N and carbon (C) sources, processing and export. Watershed characterization of two watersheds with contrasting land uses (suburban and forested), along with field monitoring of instream and BMP water chemistry is currently being completed. This will allow us to parameterize the influences of existing BMPs on instream N concentrations, and allow RHESSys to scale up their observed functionality. RHESSys will test multiple, spatially-explicit scenarios to identify the combination of N loading and BMP treatment that minimizes aquatic ecosystem degradation so that land developers can urbanize responsibly.