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The 2016 Kent State Water and Land Symposium

A major focus for the Watershed Hydrology lab this fall has been preparing for the Kent State University Water and Land Symposium. Anne Jefferson was the symposium co-chair (with lots of help from Biology’s Chris Blackwood), and all of the lab members were involved in some way. Pedro, Laura, Hayley, and Cody presented posters. Caytie and Garrett helped with set up and were on tweeting duty. The symposium had about 400 attendees from universities, agencies, cities, non-profits, and the general public from throughout northeast Ohio. If you missed the event live or on twitter, here’s how it went down.


This year’s symposium occurred on October 5-6, 2016, and featured the theme of “Sustainability and Resilience on the Land-Water Continuum.”

Abstract: Assessing the Possibilities of the West Creek Watershed Stewardship Center Vegetated Roof

Results of our work on green infrastructure at Cleveland Metroparks Watershed Stewardship Center will make its debut at the CitiesAlive 13th Annual Green Roofs & Walls Conference, in New York, NY from October 5th to October 8th, 2015.

Assessing the Possibilities of the West Creek Watershed Stewardship Center Vegetated Roof

Jessie Hawkins, Reid Coffman, Anne Jefferson, Lauren Kinsman-Costello

The vegetated roof at the Cleveland Metroparks’ Watershed Stewardship Center is an element in a suite of green infrastructure approaches, intended to be educational components, showcasing various methods of stormwater management. This study reviews estimation and design decision making tools to understand expected performance. Field data will be used to assess the current conditions of the roof in order to make recommendations for improvement of the existing vegetated roof system.

The planting design for the roof was intended to intercept rainfall with prostrate vegetation, pre-grown in 4 inch thick trays planted with varieties of Sedum spp. and Allium senescens. Plant species composition and biomass will be assessed in regard to stormwater performance and biodiversity, allowing for an invertebrate habitat. Soil samples taken from the roof have been analyzed for infiltration and nutrient content. Nutrient concentrations will be assessed in rainwater and compared to water flowing off the roof, determining if the roof is a source of nutrients to the downstream ecosystems. Sound reduction and thermal properties will be assessed with the results used for recommendation, serving as a resource guideline for local implementation.

Ground level view of the green roof, April 2015. Photo by A. Jefferson.

Ground level view of the green roof, April 2015. Photo by A. Jefferson.

Soil moisture dynamics and their effect on bioretention performance in Northeast Ohio

Most members of the Watershed Hydrology lab chose to go to GSA this year, and we had a blast sharing our science and enjoying Vancouver and surrounding areas. But now we are sadly missing out on the American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting going on this week. Fortunately, a small piece of our work will be represented by outstanding summer REU student Sidney Bush. She’s giving a poster on Thursday afternoon in the Moscone West poster hall at H43F-1017. Here’s her abstract:

Soil moisture dynamics and their effect on bioretention performance in Northeast Ohio

Sidney A. Bush1, Anne Jefferson2, Kimberly Jarden2, Lauren E Kinsman-Costello2 and Jennifer Grieser3, (1)University of Virginia Main Campus, Charlottesville, VA, United States, (2)Kent State University Kent Campus, Kent, OH, United States, (3)Cleveland Metroparks, Parma, OH, United States

Urban impervious surfaces lead to increases in stormwater runoff. Green infrastructure, like bioretention cells, is being used to mitigate negative impacts of runoff by disconnecting impervious surfaces from storm water systems and redirecting flow to decentralized treatment areas. While bioretention soil characteristics are carefully designed, little research is available on soil moisture dynamics within the cells and how these might relate to inter-storm variability in performance. Bioretentions have been installed along a residential street in Parma, Ohio to determine the impact of green infrastructure on the West Creek watershed, a 36 km2 subwatershed of the Cuyahoga River. Bioretentions were installed in two phases (Phase I in 2013 and Phase II in 2014); design and vegetation density vary slightly between the two phases. Our research focuses on characterizing soil moisture dynamics of multiple bioretentions and assessing their impact on stormwater runoff at the street scale. Soil moisture measurements were collected in transects for eight bioretentions over the course of one summer. Vegetation indices of canopy height, percent vegetative cover, species richness and NDVI were also measured. A flow meter in the storm drain at the end of the street measured storm sewer discharge. Precipitation was recorded from a meteorological station 2 km from the research site. Soil moisture increased in response to precipitation and decreased to relatively stable conditions within 3 days following a rain event. Phase II bioretentions exhibited greater soil moisture and less vegetation than Phase I bioretentions, though the relationship between soil moisture and vegetative cover is inconclusive for bioretentions constructed in the same phase. Data from five storms suggest that pre-event soil moisture does not control the runoff-to-rainfall ratio, which we use as a measure of bioretention performance. However, discharge data indicate that hydrograph characteristics, such as lag time and peak flow, are altered relative to a control street. This analysis suggests that street-scale implementation of bioretention can reduce the impact of impervious surface on stormflows, but more information is needed to fully understand how soil moisture of the bioretentions affects inter-storm variability in performance.

Sidney’s poster is part of a session on “Water, Energy, and Society in Urban Systems” that Anne nominally helped convened. Check out all of the stimulating morning talks and awesome afternoon posters on Thursday. The rest of us are sorry to be missing it, but if *you* are in San Francisco at AGU this week, don’t miss out on all the great science in the session.

Kent State Water Symposium Tomorrow: Water Infrastructure and Rebounding Cities

Water Infrastructure and Rebounding Cities

Oct. 31, 2014

8 a.m. – 5:30 p.m.

Kent State University Hotel and Conference Center
215 Depeyster Street, Kent, OH 44240

Tomorrow will be a day full of inter-disciplinary talks and discussion about water and cities. David Sedlak, author of Water 4.0, will be the keynote speaker, but all of the talks promise to be informative and thought-provoking. Watershed hydrology lab students will be showing off their posters in the late afternoon.

Join us for this wonderful and stimulating event. For more info:

Where we’ll be at GSA 2014

It’s crunch time before GSA in Vancouver next week. If you want to stop by and see what we’re up to, cheer us on, or ask difficult questions, here’s where to find us.

Kimm’s poster is #205-6 in a competition session for environmental and engineering geology (T98).
She’ll be at her poster from 9-11 am and 5-6:30 pm.

Friend of the lab, Chris Rowan has a poster, #231-5, in a session on the Cascadia subduction zone (T7).
He’ll be at his poster from from 9-11 am and 5-6:30 pm.

Aly’s *talk* is at 3:45 pm in VCC West 202/203. Her talk is in a session of undergraduate research talks (T107). We’ll all be there to cheer her on!

Tuesday night the students will be at the Hydrogeology student reception and later we’ll all be at the Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology awards ceremony and reception.

Anne’s poster is #306-2, in an education session (T66).
Our isotope education collaborator, Liz Griffith, has a poster next to Anne’s at #306-3.
Anne and Liz will be at their posters from 9-11 am and 5-6:30 pm.

Krista’s poster is #309-9 in the session on groundwater-surface water interactions (T170).
Stuart’s poster is #309-10 in the same session.
They’ll be at their posters from 2-4 and 5:30-6:30 pm.

Eric’s poster is #298-8 in an acid mine drainage session (T114).
He’ll be at his poster from 2-4 and 5:30-6:30 pm.

Are you a friend of the lab? Do you have exciting science you want us to be sure to check out? Let us know in the comments!

Upper Midwest Stream Restoration Symposium

I participated in this a few years ago and it was a great experience for practitioners, regulators, and academics of stream restoration.

Let me encourage you to submit an abstract to the 2015 Upper Midwest Stream Restoration Symposium (UMSRS) to be held Feb 8-11, 2015 in Dubuque, Iowa. Organized by the regional Partnership for River Restoration and Science in the Upper Midwest (PRRSUM), the UMSRS focuses on bringing together researchers and applied practitioners to advance the dialogue of river and stream restoration in the Midwest.

The oral abstract deadline for the conference is September 26, 2014. Learn more in the attached flyer and PRRSUM brochure. If you are unable to participate, please consider signing up for our mailing list to learn about other PRRSUM activities (only 1-2 emails a month!) at

For more information:

Development of hyporheic exchange and nutrient uptake following stream restoration

Next week, the Watershed Hydrology Lab will be well represented at the CUAHSI 2014 Biennial Colloquium. We’ll be presenting four posters, so here come the abstracts…

Development of hyporheic exchange and nutrient uptake following stream restoration

Stuart Baker and Anne Jefferson

Stream restoration is a multi-million dollar industry in Ohio, with major goals of improving water quality and degraded habitat. Yet restoration often falls short of significant improvements in water quality and biodiversity. It is thus important to improve the theory and practice of stream restoration in order to achieve greater benefits per dollar spent, yet there are limited data and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical responses to restoration that constrain the potential for water quality and ecological improvements. Hyporheic exchange, the flow of water into and out of the streambed, is an important stream process that serves critical roles in naturally functioning streams, allowing for stream water to participate with the substrate in various processes. Hyporheic flowpaths can be altered by the transport of fine sediment through the stream bed and are thus susceptible to changes in sediment regime and hydraulics, as well as the changes wrought by construction of a restoration project. The goal of this research is to determine the effectiveness of restoration in enhancing hyporheic flow and associated biogeochemical processes to improve water quality. Preliminary results from Kelsey Creek, OH, a second-order stream restored in August 2013, show a decrease in average hydraulic conductivity but an increase in heterogeneity from pre-restoration (geometric mean 8.47×10-5 m/s, range 1.18×10-6-1.19×10-3) to post-restoration (geometric mean 4.41×10-5 m/s, range 2.67×10-5-3.05×10-4) in piezometer nests through large constructed riffle structures. These piezometers also indicate dominance of downwelling throughout riffle structures with only isolated locations of upwelling. Transient storage and hyporheic exchange will be measured with resazurin injections for comparison between pre-restoration and post-restoration, and nutrient injections of NH4Cl at time points following the restoration will compare the nitrogen uptake rates of the restored reach to an unrestored reach downstream. Additional sites are planned for study to include restoration projects of different ages to examine the development of hyporheic exchange and biogeochemistry after completion of restoration projects.

Stormwater control measures modify event-based stream temperature dynamics in urbanized headwaters

Next week, the Watershed Hydrology Lab will be well represented at the CUAHSI 2014 Biennial Colloquium. We’ll be presenting four posters, so here come the abstracts…

Stormwater control measures modify event-based stream temperature dynamics in urbanized headwaters

Grace Garner1, Anne Jefferson2*, Sara McMillan3, Colin Bell4 and David M. Hannah1
1School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
2Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44240, USA
3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA
4Department of Infrastructure and Environmental System, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA

Urbanization is a widespread and growing cause of hydrological changes and ecological impairment in headwater streams. Stream temperature is an important control on physical, chemical and ecological processes, and is an often neglected water quality variable, such that the effects of urban land use and stormwater management on stream temperature are poorly constrained. Our work aims to identify the influence of stormwater control measures (SCMs) of differing design and location within the watershed on the event-based temperature response of urban streams to precipitation in the North Carolina Piedmont, in order to improve prediction and management of urban impacts. Stream temperature was measured within SCMs, and upstream and downstream of them in two streams between June and September 2012 and 2013. Approximately 60 precipitation events occurred during that period. To unambiguously identify temperature increases resulting from precipitation, surges were identified as a rise in water temperature of ?0.2°C between the hours of 15:30 and 5:30, when the diurnal temperature cycle is either decreasing or static on days without precipitation. Surges up to 5°C were identified in response to precipitation events, with surges occurring both upstream and downstream of the SCM under some conditions. Surges were also recorded within the SCMs, confirming that temperature surges are the result of heated urban runoff. Classification tree modeling was used to evaluate the influence of hydrometeorological drivers on the generation and magnitude of temperature surges. In both streams, event precipitation, antecedent precipitation, and air temperature range were identified as the drivers of whether or not a surge was observed and how large the surge was, though the order and thresholds of these variables differed between the two sites. In a stream with an off-line, pond SCM, the presence of the pond in the lower 10% of the watershed did not affect the magnitude of temperature surges within the stream, but the pond itself had a wider range of surge magnitudes than did the stream. In a watershed with a large in-line pond, and a downstream contributing wetland SCM receiving flow from 40% of the watershed, the wetland increased both the frequency and magnitude of temperature surges observed in the stream. Our results suggest dynamic hydrometeorological conditions, SCM design, and position within a watershed all influence whether stormwater management reduces or enhances temperature surges observed within urban headwater streams, and that these factors should be considered in the recommendations for urban stormwater management systems.

Assessing impacts of green infrastructure at the watershed scale for suburban streets in Parma, Ohio

Next week, the Watershed Hydrology Lab will be well represented at the CUAHSI 2014 Biennial Colloquium. We’ll be presenting four posters, so here come the abstracts…

Assessing impacts of green infrastructure at the watershed scale for suburban streets in Parma, Ohio

Kimberly Jarden, Anne Jefferson, Jennifer Grieser, and Derek Schaefer

High levels of impervious surfaces in urban environments can lead to greater levels of runoff from storm events and overwhelm storm sewer systems. Disconnecting impervious surfaces from storm water systems and redirecting the flow to decentralized green infrastructure treatments can help lessen the detrimental effects on watersheds. The West Creek Watershed is a 36 km2 subwatershed of the Cuyahoga River that contains ~35% impervious surface. We seek to evaluate the hydrologic impacts and pollution reduction of street scale investments using green infrastructure best management practices (BMPs), such as rain gardens, bioretention, and rain barrels. Before-after-control-impact design will pair two streets with 0.001-0.002 ha. lots and two streets with 0.005-0.0075 ha. lots. Flow meters have been installed to measure total discharge, velocity, and stage pre– and post-construction. Runoff data has been preliminarily analyzed to determine if peak discharge for large (> 10 mm) and small (<10 mm) storm events has been reduced after installation of BMPs on the street with 0.001-0.002 ha. lots. Initial results show that the peak flows have not been reduced for most storm events on the street with the green infrastructure. However, several larger events show that peak flows have been reduced on the treatment street and need to be further investigated to ensure no outside hydrological impacts are having an effect on the flow. Initial analysis of total flow volume for each event, pre- and post-construction, show that total volume has increased on the street with green infrastructure treatments. Possible explanation for the increase on flow volume could be attributed to under drains from bioretention creating a more connected flow path to the storm drain or an upstream leak in the control street storm drain. Each scenario will be investigated further to confirm results. Further research will include analysis of the total effect of street-scale BMPs on storm hydrograph characteristics including, hydrograph regression behavior and lag time. Analysis on the accumulation of metals in the bioswales and the reduction of metals in street runoff will also be conducted to determine if the BMP treatments are capturing pollutants associated with storm water. After studying the effect of each individual treatment, we will define the level of disconnected impervious surfaces needed in order to achieve a natural hydrologic regime in this watershed.